NCBI Bookshelf. Endotext [Internet]. Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of male cancer deaths in Western countries. However, one of the most contentious topics in medicine continues to be whether testing for this very common tumor is in the best interests of individual patients. Although there is a spectrum of progression rates for this tumor, in most instances, prostate cancer replicates and spreads slowly.
The purpose of this article is to review blood and urine tests that are currently available and under investigation for a role in prostate cancer screening and detection. Compared to total PSA alone, its combination with percent free-to-total PSA contributes greater specificity for prostate cancer, and is a component of 2 newer blood tests called the 4kScore and Prostate Health Index. All three tests improve the prediction of high-grade disease and are commercially available options to aid in initial or repeat prostate biopsy decisions. PCA3 is a urinary marker that is currently available for repeat prostate biopsy decisions.
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